COMPOZITORI TRANSILVANENI DIN SECOLELE XVI-XVIII Valentin Greff Bacfarc I. FANTEZIE — RICERCAR (7'00") Johann Sartorius — junior II. DICTUM IN DO MAJOR PENTRU SOLIŞTI, COR ŞI ORCHESTRÄ 1. Largo (4'35") 2. Presto (2'47") 3. Andante — Allegro — Andante (4'43") 4. Andante l şi II (4'43") 5. Allegro — Presto (3'32") Ion Cäianu III. „DANSERIES" DIN CODEX CAIONI (11'45") Gabriel Reilich IV. CINCI LIEDURI DIN „GEISTLICHMUSIKALISCHER BLUM- UND ROSENWALD" 1. Wo ist der Schönste (2'05") 2. O, du Kleinod meiner Sinnen (2'42") 3. O, wo bist du mein Leben (1'47") 4. Komm mein Herze (1'43") 5. Herz wenn ich nur dich hab (1'24") Daniel Speer V. INTRADA ŞI DOUÄ DANSURI VALAHE DIN SUITA „MUSIKALISCH TÜRKISCHER EULENSPIEGEL" (4'18")
Transcrieri şi prelucrări pentru orchesträ de Ludovic Baci Formaţie de muzicâ veche Dirijor : Ludovic Baci Grup vocal dirijat de Aurel Grigoraş (II) Solisti : Georgeta Stoleriu — soprană (II, IV), Rodica Mitricâ — mezzo-soprană, Mihai Zamfir tenor, lonel Pantea — bas (II)
The Middle Ages inscribed in the history of Romanian music pages of matchless beauty, non-dissimulated resonances of originality and spirituality. On the territory of our country, due to the historic conditions, heterogenous musical layers have fought for supremacy in o baffling evolution, aiming crystallisation and stabilization. With their ascending evolution, the confruntation between styles has accentuated, generating interferences and the definitive penetration of the attributes of the Romanian folk music in the departments which define the profile of our music at that time: Byzantine and Gregorian, Western and Oriental. In other words, the East and the West of Europe, with their specific cultures, met and superposed in the music of the Romanian provinces, in a very interesting and fertile way. In this country, as nowhere in the world probably, the forms of folk music and those of the western professional music have developed simultaneously preserving, nevertheless, their essence. The oral creation and that of the most important composers have at the same time developed on the territory of Romania. The Byzantine music and the Gregorian music have often lived together in the same villages and towns, favouring musical creations that have had an important role in ennobling the minds. Beyond the heterogenous character of the musical styles, the inner organic character of our music comes in the forefront despite the fact that Romanians lived in different states. The unitary character of music has derived from the large area of circulation of the folk and Byzantine music, to which has been added the specific character of the medium, absorbing the creative energies of all the inhabitants of the territory. The musical unity of the Romanian people was formed round the Carpathian mountains, materialized in various styles, an expression of the historic past, of the artistic tradition, of the sensibility and thought of those who, with their skill and talent, have honoured this picturesque and tormented corner of the world. This record includes representative pieces for the mediaeval music in this country, arrangements of Romanian folk music and creations in an European style of some Transylvanian musicians. The difficulties of bringing to date the scores are very great due especially to the fact that not all of them have been preserved ; therefore, a very hard work of reconstitution and transcription has been required. One of the brightest careers as a virtuoso instrumentalist in the Middle Ages was that of Valentin Greff Bacfarc, much applauded at the royal courts of Europe as a lute player. Born in Brasov in 1507 in a family of Transylvanian saxons, dead in Padua on August 22-nd 1576, Bacfarc toured Europe, giving concerts at the royal courts, where his interpretative art and his fantasy in improvisations were appreciated. Bacfarc was also a composer, known especially due to two volumes : Intabula-tura, published in Lyon in 1552 (1553) and Harmoniarum Musicorum, published in Cracow in 1565. The pieces contained by the volumes are transcriptions for lute of some vocal pieces and own compositions, as well as of fantasies, which prove a good knowledge of the Italian Renaissance style. The Fantasies show a counterpoint notation, the constitutive voices having a special individuality and being assembled after homophone criteria. The Fantasia ricercar, at which we notice a melodic Inventiveness and a proportion of the planes, is performed after a transcription by Ludovic Baci, for three viole da gamba and four blockflutes. The composer Gabriel Reilich (1610 (?) — 1677) has linked his name to that of the town of Sibiu, because he was an organist there and a court musician. He left to posterity an impressive creation : arias, dances, solo instrumental pieces, vocal-instrumental concerts, characterised by a new "concertante" style, with great virtuosity and rich ornamentations, typical of the Baroc epoch. In 1675 and 1677 he publishes two volumes under the title Geistlichmusikalischer Blum-und Rosenwald (Spiritual forest of flowers and roses) for vocalists and thorough bass, which include short arias, in a way a sort of couplets, having a marked melodic conduct supported by a subtle harmonic instrumental accompaniment, lacking the spectacular. From this cycle five arias are presented for soprano and chamber orchestra, in Ludovic Baci's transcription and arrangement. Daniel Speer, or as he used to call himself Simplicis-simus Dac (1636—1707), was a musician at the court of the Prince Gheorghe Stefan. He took a great interest in the Romanian tunes, in the "notional" songs of the peoples in the eastern part of Europe and introduced them in the ballet Musikalisch Turkischer Eulenspiegel (1688), gathering Hungarian, Greek, Wallachian, Mosco-vite, Cosack, Russian and Polish dances. From a musical point of view the ballet is much related to the choreographic comedies of Lully, where, to narrate the action, the instrumental ensemble and the human voice are used. The musical numbers are presented as miniature pieces, having a one to three parts construction, with a laconic development, after which the initial theme is resumed in a new metrical configuration under the name of proportio. Although Speer calls only two ballets as "Wallachian", in fact one can easily notice the presence of some intonations characteristic of Romanian music in other numbers too. Characteristic of the two "Wallachian" dances is the bright expression, the lively rhythm, the modal-diatonic symmetry. From the ballet's score, the following are presented : Intrada, Wallachian dance, Intradg, Wallachian dance, Intrada. Ever since the end of the XVI-th century, the Romanian dances were introduced in various tabulatures, a fact which testifies to their artistic value. An essential contribution to the knowledge of this much appreciated genre was made by Ion Caianu (1629—1687), a scholar with multilateral preoccupations, who introduced Romanian tunes in an impressive Codex (known under the name of Codex Caioni), taken over from Matei from Seredei and completed by him, thus offering our historiography a substantial support in defining originality and affirmation. Ion Caianu is the first Romanian musician oriented towards the turning to good values of folklore, realizing its artistic virtues and professional potential. Caianu's inheritance represents a real gallery of the music of his time : choral transcriptions, instrumental pieces and dances. Although Caianu was an organist, his pieces are not overcharged, being reduced to two extreme voices, the discant and the bass ; the musical structure is circumscribed in limited dimensions, observing the phrasing and the popular archtype. The tunes have often a lively, dynamic character, and sometime a dreaming, lyrical sadness. The orchestral arrangement of the thesaurus of Romanian music left to posterity by Caianu in his Codex is interpreted in Ludovic Baci's arrangement. The Dictum in C major by Johann Sartorius Junior (1712—1787) of Sibiu can serve as a convincing illustration of the talent and the maestria of one of the most distinguished Transylvanian musicians in the late Mediaeval period. Just as his father, Johann Sartorius-Junior composed especially vocal-instrumental pieces of sacred music, a fact which was of a nature not to make him very popular. Still, the clarity of the image, the harmony of proportions, the perfect construction, the rich melodic arabesques, plead in favour of a great personality. His favourite genre, Dictum, appears as an intermediate structure between cantata and oratorio, having arias, ensembles and choirs accompanied by a chamber instrumental formation. The work had necessarily to end with an ample fugue, which required all the interpreters.
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