Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina OTTO RICERCARI SOPRA LI TUONI 1. Ricercar del primo tuono 2. Ricercar del secondo tuono 3. Ricercar del terzo tuono 4. Ricercar del quarto tuono 5. Ricercar del quinto tuono 6. Ricercar del sesto tuono 7. Ricercar del settimo tuono 8. Ricercar del ottavo tuono
John Dowland LACHRIMAE 1. Lachrimae Antiquae 2. Lachrimae Antiquae novae 3. Lachrimae Gementes 4. Lachrimae Tristes 5. Lachrimae Coactae 6. Lachrimae Amantis 7. Lachrimae Verae Formaţia Consortium Violae SANDA CRĂCIUN şi EUGENIA DEACONU — viole, EMILIA NĂDEJDE — viola de gambo alto, ANCA IAROSEVICI şi ROBERT DUMITRESCU — viola da gamba tenor, MARTA JOJA — spinetă înregistrare realizată in Sala de marmora a Casei Scinteii, iunie 1987.
The impact of a score, the revelation of a certain music can set off an unexpected story. Such was the case of Lachrimae or Seven Tears by John Dowland which suggested to violist Sanda Crăciun the creation of a viola ensemble. Her wish came true : the ensemble, called Consortium violae, includes a small number or violas such as are used today, as well as instruments of an older type : viola da gambas (alto and tenor). To them have occasionally been added a solo voice and other Renaissance instruments such as the lute, the spinet, the harpsichord, the Block-flöte, and a few adequate percussion instruments. Its repertoire comprises pieces ranging from the Middle Ages to the baroque, with stress on world and Romanian Renaissance music. The programme on this disc has been selected from Renaissance music : Ricercari sopra li tuoni a quattro by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina — (?) 1525—1594 — in fact, ascribed to him (as no autographic copy or original edition has been found so far) on the basis of a copy discovered among the papers of Baini (1775—1844), a researcher of Palestrina's life and work, an 18th century phenomenon who conceived musical style as in the 16th century and composed accordingly. Ricercare (It.== to search out, meaning to elaborate) was the term adopted in 16th century Italy to designate those polyphonic instrumental pieces similar to the vocal motet. In these pieces the composer also aimed at a succesive presentation of the eight modes used at that time, and devoted a Ricercare to each. Their writing is not different from that of vocal motets, being deployed over the comfortable range of the human voice and using the generally gentle melodic lines of Renaisance compositions. However, 16th century tradition permitted the addition of fioriture, particularly to a melodic passage performed by two (or more) instrumentalists, one of whom ornaments it, while the other(s) ensures its continuity. As a rule, the scores of the time did not specify a piece's orchestration. Sanda Crăciun has chosen an instrumental formula using two violas for the first voice (the first viola executes the fioriture) and, for the remaining three parts, an alto and two tenor viola da gambas, the whole score being also played by the spinet. The embellishments are achieved by the leader of the ensemble, in the spirit of the respective style. This is the first ornamented performance of these Ricercari in our country. Lachrimae by John Dowland — 1562—1625 (6 ?) — the score that inspired the setting up of the ensemble — takes us into the Elizabethan and post-Elizabethan period, when its author was one of the best lute players and composers of England's Royal Chapel. The seven Lachrimae are in fact seven pavans from a collection published in 1685 which also included galliards and allemandes. The polyphonic movement of the violas is paralleled by the lute (or the spinet, on this recording). In his cycle of pavans, John Dowland set out from a melodic formula which remains constant at the beginning of the Lachrimae but which, each time, generates a new, variational type of evolution, ensuring variety in unity. MYRIAM MARBE English version by Magda Morait
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