Дуэты блокфлейт из трёх веков. Марион Фербрюгген, Аннеке Буке
Recorder Duets of Three Centuries Our record offers late-renaissance and baroque music in the performance of a rare and extraordinary ensemble: recorder-duet. This instrument-ensemble can be regarded as rare and extraordinary both in the renaissance and the baroque music. This is so in the Renaissance because the purely instrumental music at that age meant music performed on some instrument (as for example lute or virginal) suitable for polyphonic play or on a defined — but in most cases at least three- or four-part melody-instrument-ensemble (as for example cromorne or gamba-ensemble). In the Baroque age this ensemble is irregular because it lacks just the most characteristic element of the musical practice of the age: harmony supporting. In spite of the fact it cannot be claimed that the pure two-partness would be unfamiliar either for the renaissance or the baroque musical practice. The renaissance vocal polyphony possesses a great deal of two-part pieces or respectively two-part sections of bigger compositions. That is often the case that two-part pieces were composed for didactic purpose. At the same time in the baroque music composing without continue is not such a rare thing as we would believe. Nevertheless the instrument-ensemble expressly consisting of two recorders does not have very much literature of its own. In the Renaissance age not much music was released for melody-instruments indicating at all what musical instruments to play it on. Furthermore the baroque repertory does not abound with pieces composed for recorder-duets either; from this age pieces composed primarily for two flutes can be played on recorders. This is in complete accordance with the contemporary practice: in the Baroque age this was regarded as a routine-method that pieces composed for flutes were interpreted on recorders transposed a minor third higher. More than one publication points out this possibility. By the terms of the original instrument-denotations—with a single exception— Telemann's pieces on the B side of our record were composed to be played on flutes (or respectively on flutes or violins). On our record the renaissance compositions sound on flutes being the most appropriate keyed and tuned for the particular pieces' character. By the late Baroque age, by which time recorders developed from consort-instruments into solo-instruments, the F-tuned contralto-instruments became the par excellence recorder; baroque duets sound on such instruments. The late-renaissance bicinia on the A side are enclosed in a frame of two phantasies by Orlando Gibbons (1583—1625). Gibbons being an outstanding figure of the Elizabethan and Jacobean great English musical Golden Age, especially his religious music and the pieces composed for instrument-ensembles are of the utmost importance. The two pieces on the record are of the six phantasies survived in a manuscript preserved in Cambridge. Their pervasive explosiveness, unforeseable variety, many-colouredness, their extremely individual and modern voice in general is amazing. As though the continuous imitation, canons are much more contributed to the wing of the pieces instead of tying the composer's hands. The particular collection entitled Rimes francoises et italiennes of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562—1621) the last great master of the music of the Low Countries was released in Leiden in 1612. The volume contains two-, three- and four-part madrigals and chansons, which are suitable for both instrumental and vocal interpretation according to the evidence of the title-page. These pieces are much nearer the traditional polyphonic style: their melodies being more flexible, their phrasing being more clear. Here too, canons are frequent. The pieces are of extraordinarily fluent and elegant intonation. The first piece is based on French words (Marchans qui traversez tout le rivage More) but the other two ones are based on Italian words (Liquide perle or respectively Garrula rondinella). A definitely instrumental feature of the first and the third composition in the long virtuosic flourish before the final note. Thomas Morley (1557 or 58—1602) like Gibbons was one of the leading personalities of the Golden Age of the English music as well but he belonged to the previous generation. Morley, being significant as theoretician, too, played a great role in the development and change of taste of English madrigals, in meditating Italian influence. His instrumental music is also of extraordinarily foreshadowing progress. In 1595 he published the first volume of his two-part canzonettas which contained some bicinia without text too — besides pieces with text. Though he calls them "fantasie" from musical point of view they do not differ from canzonettas with text in any way. They surely served didactic purposes as material to solmizate, though they are effectively soundable on instruments. Each movement is given a character title. The first piece is subtitled: Il lamento (The Complaint). There is too much discord, retardation in the sentimental composition of minor character. The second piece—La caccia (The Hunting)—is more lively. Towards the end of the piece a canon-like part in which one section closely follows the other with an excited figure excellently translates the picture of wild chasing into the language of music. The character title of the third composition is La Girondola — maybe this word refers to both the rotating wheel of fireworks and children's paper pinwheel. Though the movement begins with a tune of wide ligature but then different diminished canons follow one another. Out of them especially the last one gives the impression of whirling very vividly. The last bicinium is La rondinella (The Small Swallow); it may have been given its title after some sentimental wing-flap-like syncopations of its. Lassus' bicinia without text, those of this unbelievably many-sided late-renaissance composer-giant, were released several times in his life-time. However, the two pieces which sound on our record were released only after his death in 1604. The speciality of the first piece is its first third — an extremely constructive section composed almost on the base of the principles of serialism. Here, that is to say, both sections keep repeating the same five-note figure in newer and newer positions, mode with the most varied rhythmics (later a bit varied as for the tune). The style of the remaining section as well as that of the other piece reminds us of the style of the Gibbons-phantasies what concerns the inexhaustable invention, freshness, variety. These pieces, however, are more settled; in spite of the various musical material, ideas, the movements here are well balanced regarding their form, they are less impromptu-like. We know rather few of William White's works (before 1585 — before 1667). His phantasy offered by our record, survived in a manuscript, was originally composed for gamba-duet. It may have come into being roughly at the same time when the Gibbons-pieces, its style, however, is more classical than that of those: it is elaborate, elegant, it gives evidence of surpassing knowledge of counterpoint. White intends greater part for the free—though not imitative—counterpoint than the other composers. George Philipp Telemann (1681—1767) is one of the most original, the most elementary inspired composers in the whole 18th century. His versatility is amazing, his prolificacy is simply unbelievable. Telemann is able to manifest himself musically at any time with the ease of a man of the world, and this often distracts attention off the fact that beside invention, brightness, perfect technical preparedness, true depth, greatness is not wanting either. Telemann composed duets for two flutes with pleasure: he devoted four perfect series consisting of six pieces to this ensemble not taking into account some independent compositions. The Sonata in D minor (originally B minor) is one of the six late sonatas which we know of a manuscript preserved in Dresden. The three-movement piece can safely be called a real masterpiece. Its point of interest is the lack of any slow movement. The first, Vivace movement kaleidoscopically brings into new and new connections the building elements of the subject and counter-subject showing different movement-forms every moment. The Poco presto is an easily flitting fairy-dance with an interesting harmo-nical timbre: modal colours, artful modulations. The final Allegro is to a certain degree the synthesis of the first two movements: the mosaic-like treatment of elements is as characteristic of it as in the case of the first movement (though here elements gradually increase in the course of progress), and the almost delirious need of movement of the musical instrument also inspires it just as the second movement. The G minor (originally E minor) endless canon is added as appendix to his six canon-sonatas entitled
Furulyaduók három évszázadból Recorder Duets of Three Centuries
1. ORLANDO GIBBONS: Fantasia I 1'56"
2. ORLANDE DE LASSUS: Magnum opus musicum No.14 1'11"
JAN PIETERSZOON SWEELINCK: Rimes francoises et italiennes I, III, IV 3. Marchans qui traversez — chanson 1'49" 4. Liquide perle Amor — madrigal 2'11" 5. Garrula rondinella — madrigal 2'00"
THOMAS MORLEY 6. Fantasie "II lamento" 2'46" 7. Fantasie "La caccia", Fantasie "La Girondola" 3'15" 8. Fantasie "La rondinelia" 1'29"
9. WILLIAM WHITE: Fantasia 2'10"
10. ORLANDO GIBBONS: Fantasia II 2'02"
GEORG PHILIPP TELEMANN 11. d-moll szonáta / Sonata in D minor TWV 40:126 4'53" (eredetileg: h-moll / originally B minor) Vivace — Poco presto — Allegro 12. Zirkelkanon TWV Anh. 40:103 2'24" (Végtelen kánon, g-moll / Endless Canon in G minor) 13. g-moll szonáta/Sonata in G minor TWV 40:104 12'37” (eredetileg: e-moll / originally E minor) Largo — Allegro — Affettuoso — Vivace 14. c-moll szonáta / Sonata in C minor TWV 40:125 6'01" (eredetileg: a-moll / originally A minor) [Vivace (Allegro)] — Moderato — Allegro
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